No. 741,138. PATENTED OCT. 13, 1903.
R. JENSEN. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLIOATIONPILED JULY 24, 190] RENEWED SEPT. 16, 1903.
NNW fl "UP N N; I my g k: I rmekwem 3 2% R. JENSEN.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 24. 1901. RENEWED SEPT. 16, 1903.
PATENTED OUT. 13, 1903 5 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
No. 741,138. PATENTED 001 .1 1903.
RJENSEN. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 24.1901. RENEWED SEPT. 16, 1903.
NO MODEL. 5 SHEETSSHEET 3.
m: mmws warns cov Pwmnurnm. WASHINGTON. D. c
PATENTBD OCT. 13, 1903. R. JENSEN.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 24.1901. RENEWED SEPT. 16,1903.
5' SH'EETS SHEET 4.
TNE mnms PEYERS om-mdm'uwn. WASHINGTON, n, c.
No. 741,138. PATENTED OCT. 13 1903.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 24. 1901. RENEWED SEPT. 16. 1903.
N0 MODEL. 5 SHEETSSHEET 5 ma Nowms versus an, PHQTO-LITNQ, WASHINGTON u c Patented October 13, 1903.
RASMUS JENSEN, OF MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN.
fnPEGIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent N0. 741,138, dated October 13, 1903. Application filed July 24,1901. Renewed September 16. 1908. Serial No. 173,496. (No model.)
i'l) aZZ'w/tom it may concern:
Be it known that I, RASMUS JENSEN, of Milwaukee, in the county of Milwaukee and State of Wisconsin, have invented certain new and usefullmprovementsin Internal-Combustion Engines; and I hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompa nying drawiugs,which form part of this speci fication.
My invention relates to improvements in internal-combustion engines.
The object of my invention is to provide an engine of the class hereinafter described which is simple in its parts, efficient and re-,
liable in its operation, devoid of complication, and economical with reference to its construction.
A further object of my invention is to provide an engine which is entirely automatic with reference to its operation and which consumes fuel only at a time when power is being produced by the said engine, the fuel consumed thereby being proportional to the power developed by it.
My engine is especially adapted to the use of automobiles, for the reason that it is devoid of many outside moving parts-such as cams, eccentrics, push-rods, slide-valves,
gearing, and chains-Which when used in connection with such service are liable to become clogged with dirt and dust and to be subject to excessive wear. a
The operation of the necessary valves for the admission and exit of the gases is not performed, as usual, by mechanical means; but such accomplishments are the result of the other functional operations of the engine, the results being effected by the variation or difference in pressure existing at such times on the opposite sides of the various valves. The valves being responsive directly and proportionately to the operative functions of the engine, they are more adaptable to its require ments than when such valves are moved arbitrarily by a mechanical means.
With these and other objects in view,which may hereinafter appear, my invention consists in certain combinations, constructions, and organizations of parts embodied in the drawings, which are illustrative thereof.
In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification, Figure 1 is a side elevation of an engine embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a central section through the same. Fig. 3 is a plan View. Fig. 4 is a back or rear elevation of the engine. Fig. 5 is a front or crank end view of the engine. Fig. 6 is a broken-away sectional view of the governing portion of the engine, showing the admission-valve open and the governor parts in their respective positions. Fig. 7 is a detail of the governor, partly in section.
In all of the views the same reference-numerals indicate like parts.
In the drawings I have shown a single engine; but it is quite evident that more than one engine may be attached to the same shaft, and the respective crank-arms may be set either coincidently, oppositely, or in any convenient relation upon the same shaft.
1 is a fly-wheel or balance-wheel of the engine.
2 is the casing surrounding the fuel or mixing chamber. 2 is an extension of the said casing forming the rear part of the cylinder. 2 is a further extension of the casing forming the front part of the cylinder.
2 is an opening in the casing for the insertion of a properly-arranged oil-receptacle to provide for the admission of lubricating-oil to the working parts within.
3 is a crank-arm. 3 is a crank-shaft, and 3 is a feather or key, the means by which the said crank is attached to the crank-shaft. A connecting-rod i surrounds the pin 5 of the crank 3 and is a means that connects the said crank to the piston 9. The connecting-rod carries the wrist-pin S.
6 is a bearing-box interposed between the crank-pin 5 and the connecting-rod 4, preferably a split ring, which may be adjusted by means of the usual shim and bolts 7. The Wrist-pin 8 has bearings within the bearing boxes 10, connected to the piston 9 by means of bolts 11.
12 is a pin secured to the front end of the piston 9, which is adapted to displace the spring-bar 20 upon the inward stroke of the piston and cause it to leave the platinum washer 21, with which it makes electrical contact, and thereby produce an electric spark with which to explode the charge contained within the combustion-chamber 45 of the cylinder. A suitable piston packing -ring 13 surrounds the piston to prevent firing back from the chamber 45 into the fuel-mixing chamber 37.
14 is a water-jacketspace for containing the cooling-water for the cylinder. 14 and 14 are the entrance and exit pipes for such water.
The cylinder-head 15 is held in position on the end of the cylinder by suitable belts or cap-screws. A removable plug 16 is inserted in the cylinder-head immediately in front of the sparking contact device for the purpose of providing a means for inspecting the said device. This plug may contain an opening covered with mica or like material, so that the contact may be inspected during the operation of the engine, or it may be bodily removed when the engine is not in operation for better examination and adjustment of the contact-points.
The two igniter-plugs 17 contain the terminals of the igniter-circuit. In the upper plug the terminal or electrode 22 is insulated from the frame of the engine.
18 is a plug to which thespring-blade electrode 20 is attached.
19 represents the screws for holding the spring-blade 20 to the plug 18.
20 is a movable spring electrodepr terminal which is adapted to make contact with the electrode-washer 21. This washer is preferably made of platinum or some other practically non-oxidizable material and is placed upon the terminal 22 of the insulated plug or stud 22. The axis of the extension 22*, upon which the washer is mounted, is eccentric to the axis of the insulated stud 22. When the stud 22 is turned upon its axis, it is secured in its new position by means of the nut 23. I
23 is a set-nut arranged to limit the movement of the stud 22 in an upward direction.
The time at which the contact between the spring-electrode 20 and the washer 21 will be broken by means of the pin 12, fixed to the piston 9, may be varied by turning the stud 22 and fixing it in a new position.
24 is a binding-post connected with the stud 22, to which the electric wires from an electric dynamo or battery are connected.
25 is a port joining the combustion-chamber 45 with the by-pass conduit-pipe 36. 26 is a puppet fuel-valve adapted to cover the said port and adapted to be operated by the difference in pressure existing upon its opposit'e sides in a manner hereinafter explained. When the valve 26 is opened, a charge-of mixed gases and air will be passed from the mixing-chamber 37, through the bypass conduit 36, into the combustion-chamber 45 around the piston. The valve 26 is bodily removable and is held in position by the body part 27. The stem 28 is guided for its vertical movement in the body part thereof, as shown in the drawings. The stem 28 is surrounded by an open helical spring 30,
which is adapted to hold the valve 26 normally closed.
29 is an insulated terminal of an electric circuit to which a yielding contact-spring 29 is attached and which forms one element of a circuit-breaker. The washer 30, which is adapted to be brought into contact with the spring 29 when the valve 26' is closed, is the other element of the circuit-breaker through which the electric circuit is completed when the parts are in the position shown in Fig. 2. The circuit is shown broken at this point in Fig. 6 when the valve 26 is held opened, at which time a spark cannot be made within the combustion-chamber.
31 is an arm pivoted at 31 and adapted to be swung upon its pivot by means of a speedgovernor 32 by agencies and for the purpose to be described. As best shownin Fig. 7, the governor comprises a vertical revoluble spindle 46", upon which is slidably mounted a sleeve 46". a lower collar 32*, secured to the spindle 46* by a diametrical pin 32, extending through slots 46 in the sleeve, an upper collar 32", secured to the sliding sleeve 46",
jointed arms 35, pivoted in said collars in the usual manner, centrifugal weights 33, supported by the arms, and a coiled spring 35*, surrounding the sleeve 46 and normally holding the collars 32 and 32 separated to their utmost extent.
34 is a grooved washer secured to the sleeve 46 below the collar 32 of the governor and adapted to be moved with the sleeve.
A laterally-extending arm 31' is a part of the vertical arm 31 and loosely surrounds the adjusting-screw 48. This screw is threaded into a loose grooved washer 48, which is loosely carried by a laterally-extending arm 31. The arm 31 surrounds the washer 34 and is adapted to be raised and lowered thereby. This arm 31 is preferably pivoted at the same axis as the arm 31.
It will be apparent that when the governor is rapidly rotated the resistance of spring 35 will be overcome and the sliding sleeve drawn down upon the spindle, carrying with it the washer 34 and depressing the arm 31*, for a purpose to be described.
36 is a by-pass conduit, preferably a pipe, adapted to connect the mixing-chamber 37 with the combustion-chamber 45.
38 is the casing of an inlet-valve 39,adapted, when seated, to close the ports 43 and 43.
39 is an open helical spring adapted to normally hold the valve 39 seated. 40 isa removable plug, the removal of which permits the removal and inspection of the said valve.
41 is a conduit for connecting a reservoir with the fuel-chamber and for conducting a liquid or gaseous fuel to the valve 39. 42 is a valve for admitting the said fuel into theport 43 and is preferably a needle-valve.
43 is a port for admitting air into the fuelchamber.
44 is a fitting to which the exhaust-pipe of the engine may be connected. 44 is a crescent-shaped port in the cylinder, openinginto the said fitting for the passage of the exhaust products of combustion from the combustionchamber 45 when the said port is uncovered by the piston 9.
46 represents a series of gears adapted to be connected to the moving parts of the engine for rotating the governor 32.
47 and 47 are links forming a toggle-joint and connecting the fixed curved arm 27 and the vertically-moving valve-stem 28. Valve 26 is adapted to be closed when the togglejoint 47 is broken, as shown in Fig. 2, and to be held open when the said toggle-joint is fixedin the position shown in Fig. 6.
47 is a stop upon the arm 47 for preventing the joint from breaking in the opposite direction.
48 is a screw adapted to change the relative position of the laterally-extending arms 31 and 31 for the purpose of regulating the speed of the engine.
Caps 49 cover the ends of the mixing-chamber, and 50 is a reservoir for containing a suitable lubricator adapted to be admitted into the mixing-chamber for lubricating the moving parts of the engine.
I have shown anoutboard bearing 51. This may be employed when a single engine is oonstructed; but it is not necessary when a double engine is produced.
The operation of my engine is as follows: During the instroke of the piston, which is shown in a position at one-half its journey or excursion, valve 26 is closed by the effect of spring 30 and held firmly closed by the increasing pressure of the charge within the combustion-chamber 45. The increase in the capacity of the mixing-chamber 37 at this time by the movement of the piston 9 lowers the pressure therein until the valve 39 is raised against the spring 39 by virtue of the difference of the pressure existing in the mixing-chamber on the one side of the valve and the outside atmosphere on the other side of the valve, and air and fuel are admitted through the ports 43 and 43 into the mixing-chamber 37. The air and gas will continue to flow therein during the time that the piston 9 is increasing the capacity of the said chamber by its instroke into the cylinder at the same time the charge, which has been previously taken in, contained in the combustion-chamber 45 is being compressed, and the valve 26 is more firmly held by the effect of the increased pressure upon its seat. When the valve 26 is seated, the washer 30, which is carried on the valve-stem 28, is made to contact with the insulated spring 29, and the electric circuit at this point is thereby closed. When the valve 26 is opened,coutact is broken between the washer 30 and the spring 29, and the electric circuit is thereby opened. At or about the end of the instroke of the piston the pin 12 will be brought into contact with thespring-blade20. The blade willbe thereby displaced and the electrical connection between the said blade and the insulated washer 21 will be broken thereby, when an electric spark will be produced at the break by which the charge contained within the combustionchamber will be fired. At this time the circuit is closed between the washer 30 and the spring 29. The degree to which the charge will be compressed may be predetermined by the length of the pin 12. When the charge is exploded within the chamber 45, the piston will be returned on its outer stroke by the increased pressure effected thereby, and an impulse of power will be imparted to the revolving shaft 3. During this time the capacity of the mixing-chamber 37 will be materially decreased and the contents compressed. It has of course been surmised that the valve 39 will have been automatically seated when the pressure within the mixing-chamber 37 approaches or rises above that of the outside atmosphere or the source from which the fuel and air is obtained and that the subsequent difference in pressure tends to more firmly hold the valve 39 upon its seat. When the piston 9 is near the end of its outward stroke, it uncovers the exhaustport 44, and the burned products of combustion contained in the combustion-chamber 45 will find an exit and be exhausted through this port, and therefore the difierence between the mixing and combustion chamber pressure in consequence thereof will be greatly increased. The difierence in pressure of the two chambers will cause the valve 26 to be opened, and a fresh supply of fuel will flow from the chamber 37, through the conduit 36, into the combustion-chamber 45, ready for the next impuise,as the exhaust-gases flow out through exhaust-port 44 It will be noticed that the engine-shaft 3 receives an impulse at each revolution. During normalspeed the arm 31 extends across the axis of valve-stem128, and thereby prevents the three pivotal points of the toggle-joint from assuming a position in the same right line. Upon excessive engine speed the arm 31 is retracted and permits the three pivotal points of the toggle-joint to lie in a single straight line, which position of the toggle-joint prevents the spring 30 from closing the valve 26. When the valve 26 is held open, the displacement produced by the piston 9 in its reciprocationin the respective chambers simply causes the contents of the chambers 37 and 45 to be switched back and forward through the by-pass conduit 36, at which time the valve 39 is not raised, and additional fuel is not admitted into the mixingchamber 37. After the engine has made several revolutions in this manner the centrifugal effect of the weights of the governor 32 will cause the rod 31 to advance to the position shown in Fig. 2 and break the toggle, and thereby allow the spring 30 to close the valve 26, when the functions of the engine will be performed in the manner heretofore described.
I have shown the drawings as an illustrative means by which my invention may be carried into effect.
It is of course obvious that a number of changes maybe made by those skilled in the art therein without departing from the principles involved .or the scope of my invention.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and useful, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is-
1. In an engine of the class described the combination of-a mixing-chamber, a cylinder communicating therewith, a fuel-inlet valve, a piston adapted to be reciprocated within said cylinder, a combustion-chamber, a bypass conduit connecting said combustionchamber and said mixing-ohamber a pressure-actuated valve in said conduit, a togglejoint adapted to hold said valve constantly open when straight, a spring for closing said valve, a speed-governor and a means controlled by said speed-governor for breaking said toggle, and thereby permit the spring to close the valve, substantially as set forth.
2. In an engine of the class described, the
combination of a valve adapted to be oper-.
ated by pressure on opposite sides thereof, a toggle adapted to hold said valve open when straight, a spring tending to close said valve, a speed-governor, and a means controlled by said governor normally interposed in the path of the togglejoint to prevent the same from straightening, and adaptedto be moved from the path of the toggle when the engine exceeds a predetermined speed, substantially as set forth.
In testimony that I'claim the foregoing as my own I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
RASMUS JENSEN. Witnesses:
W. E. BUsELMAN, E. G. HANSCHKE.