No. 755,032. PATENTED MAR. 22, 1904'.
n. MOP! 00311. 7
APPARATUS FOR WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY.
- urmonmn FILED APR. 18. 190-3.
' INVENTOI'? WITNESSES: D U77 W I c1711l By a llnirnn STATES Patented March 22, 1904.
DANIEL MOFARLAN MOO-RE,
or NEWARK, NEW JERSEY.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 755,032, dated March 22, 1904. Application filed April 18, 1903. Serial No. 153,175. (No model.)
To aZZ whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, DANIEL MCFARLAN' MOORE, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Newark, in the countyof Essex and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Apparatus for WVireless Transmission of Energy, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to a novel method of and apparatus for producing electric waves, oscillations, or vibrations suitable for use in the wireless transmission of energy for power purposes or for the control of devices at a distance, as in the present systems with wireless telegraphy.
My present application for patent is as to its main feature a continuation of an application filed by me June 14, 1902, Serial No. 111,591.
The object of the invention is to set up the ether waves or vibrations of waves of radiant energy in a more economical and effective manner than has been hitherto accomplished by apparatus previously employed and embodying means for making and breaking the primary circuit of induction-coil in the open air.
My invention consists, substantially, of a novel apparatus for the wireless transmission of energy embracing means for interrupting a charging electric circuit in vacuum, a condenser charged from said circuit, and a sparkgap, across which the oscillatory discharge of said condenser takes place, thereby setting up waves of radiant energy by impressing the oscillatory disturbances upon the ether.
My invention consists also in the combination of apparatus for wireless transmission of energy for any purpose embracing in combination a suitable generator of electric currents of any desired kind, a circuit of selfinduction over which currents may flow through contacts in avacuum, means for separating said contacts, and a branch from the circuit of induction leading to the condenser and a spark-gap.
My invention consists also in the novel combinations of apparatus, as hereinafter more particularly described and then set forth in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 shows diagrammatically an arrangement of apparatus suitable for practicing my invention. Fig. 2 illustrates a modification wherein a potential-raising device is used between the circuit of induction and the circuit of the condenser.
Referring to Fig. 1, 2 indicates a suitable sealed inclosure containing electrodes 3 and 4:. Inclosure 2 is exhausted to any desired degree, but preferably for the best results should be exhausted to a high degree. Included in the circuit over which current may flow from one to the other of said electrodes 3 4c is a suitable generator 1, which charges said circuit. Said generator may generate currents of any desired kind whether continuous or pulsatory. To give the circuit of contacts 3 4C a considerable degree of induction, I prefer to employ therein a coil of wire 5, which coil may serve also as the coil for an electromagnet adapted to operate on one of the contacts 3, and thereby produce a break in the circuit of induction. tion of the breaks is secured by the arrangement shown, inasmuch as at their interruption between the contacts 3 4 the electromagnet which serves to raise the upper one of the contacts will lose its power and the contact will then again close the circuit, since it is acted upon by gravity and is of proper material or is provided with proper material to permit it to be acted upon by the magnet inv the same way as the armature of an ordinary electromagnet. To control the operation of the circuitinterrupter thus constituted, a suitable key in circuit-controller 7 will be embraced in the circuit of the coil 5. A supplemental coil 20 may be included in the circuit on the opposite side of the break to balance the self-induction of the coil 5. In a branch around the contacts 3 4: is placed a condenser 22 and the device of a spark-gap 16. To intensify the effects produced by the discharge of said condenser across the sparkgap, the usual aerial and ground wires 10 11, employed in space transmission of energy may be also used. When the key 7 is closed, the circuit, including coils 5 and contacts 3 4, becomes immediately charged and is immedi- A rapid repetiately broken between the contacts 3 4 in the vacuum of the inclosure 2. This produces an exceedingly sharp or rapid change in the potential on the circuit and the self-induction of the coil 5 and in the circuit including the same generates a sudden impulse or wave of current which is transferred over the branch around the contacts 3 4 to the condenser 22 and charges the same in the well-known way. When the difference of potential on the terminals of the condenser rises sufiiciently to overcome the resistance of the spark-gap 16, a certain oscillatory discharge of said condenser takes place across said gap and the electric waves, vibrations, or oscillations so occurring set up the ether vibrations or waves after the ordinary manner employed in wireless telegraphy, being impressed upon the ether or transmitting-media filling space. To aid in this effect, the aerial and ground wires 10 11 may be used.
It will be observed that in this apparatus I do not depend upon the induction of one coil upon another for generating electric waves or oscillations, as is done in most forms of Wireless-transmission apparatus, but that I utilize the self-induction on the circuit directly to produce the charging-current for the condenser. I am therefore enabled to avoid the long time constant of the usual secondary coil, which is employed for getting the proper potential, and can'obtain the same efl'ective charging of the condenser, because there being a less time constant a more sudden charging of the condenser may be effected. Also it will be seen that inasmuch as the break of circuit occurs in a vacuum a higher potential may be obtained from the same current on the circuit of the generator 1 than would be possible by the use of an air-brake.
While I have described my invention as carried out by transferring the changed potentials on the circuit of self-induction directly to the'condenser 22, it is possible to use them as a means for inductively producing a current to charge the condenser, and hence to raise the potential of the original disturbances generated in the circuit of self-induction, as well understood in the art. This modification of my invention I have illustrated in Fig. 2, wherein a transformer is diagrammatically illustrated at 30. The remaining parts of the apparatus are the same as already described and require no further elucidation.
What I claim as my invention is 1. In an apparatus for the wireless transmission of energy, the combination of a generator, an interrupter in the circuit thereof having its contacts in a vacuum, a condenser charged by the energy developed through interruptions of the circuit, and a spark-gm connected to the circuit of the condenser.
2. In an apparatus for the wireless transmission of energy, the combination substantially as described of an electromagnetic circuit-interrupter having its contacts in avacucuum, a key or other device for controlling the circuit and a condenser and spark-gap bridging said contacts.
3. The combination substantially as described of a vacuum-break and a disruptive spark-gap and a condenser in parallel with one another around said vacuum-break.
4. The combination of a spark-gap, condenser, and antennae and ground-wires connected around a vacuum-break.
5. The combination with a vacuum-break of a condenser and a spark-gap in parallel, and a transformer one winding of which is in a branch around the vacuum-break while the other winding is connected to the condenser and spark-gap.
Signed at New York city, in the county of New York and State of New York, this 15th day of April, A. D. 1903.
DANIEL MCFARLAN MOORE.
J. GALLWITZ, E. L. LAWLER.